viernes, marzo 31, 2006



El hielo es agua sólida cristalizada, congelada. Es uno de los tres estados naturales del agua. El agua pura se congela a 0 °C al nivel del mar. El agua, junto con el galio, bismuto, ácido acético, antimonio y el silicio son algunas de las pocas sustancias que al congelarse aumentan de volumen, la mayoría de las otras sustancias se contraen al congelarse. Los otros dos estados son el estado líquido y el estado gaseoso (a 100 °C y al nivel del mar, el vapor).
Estos dos valores son válidos únicamente a una atmósfera de presión (aproximadamente 1,013 x 10 5 Pa)
Estructura cristalina
A presión atmosférica, las moléculas de agua se estructuran de manera tetraédrica, en virtud del enlace de hidrógeno. Por esto, las moléculas de agua no se amontonan de manera compacta, sino que están espaciadas; por lo tanto, la densidad del hielo es menor que la del agua (alrededor de 0,9). El cristal de hielo tiene una estructura hexagonal compacta (a = 7,5 Å, c = 7,3 Å). Esta estructura se denomina "hielo 1h" o "hielo Ih".
Fuera de la Tierra, en otros planetas o en satélites en los que las condiciones de presión y de temperatura son diferentes, el hielo puede adoptar otras estructuras más compactas:
hielo lc (baja temperatura, cúbica de facetas centradas, densidad aprox. 0,9)
hielo II (baja temperatura, ortorrómbica centrado, densidad aprox. 1,2)
hielo III ó Iii (baja temperatura, tetragonal, densidad aprox. 1,1)
hielo V (alta presión, baja temperatura, monoclínica de base centrada, densidad aprox. 1,2)
hielo VI (alta presión, baja temperatura, tetragonal, densidad aprox. 1,3)
hielo VII (alta temperatura, alta presión, cúbico sencilla, densidad aprox. 1,7)
hielo VIII (alta presión, tetragonal centrada, densidad aprox. 1,6)
hielo IX (alta presión, tetragonal, densidad aprox. 1,2)
hielo XII (alta presión, baja temperatura, tetragonal, densidad aprox. 1,3).
La forma cristalina que adopta el hielo en función de la presión y la temperatura se puede representar en un diagrama de fase:


Fusión eutéctica
En las condiciones terrestres y durante el invierno es frecuente agregar sal al hielo para que se funda. De hecho, lo que se funde no es el hielo, sino un compuesto de hielo y sal llamado "eutéctico".
Cuando la sal NaCl (Na+, Cl-) entra en contacto con el hielo, los iones se arreglan alrededor de las moléculas de agua, que son polares (H2δ+, Oδ-) y viene a formar un compuesto (H2O).(NaCl) ; para este rearreglo hacen falta solamente unos pequeños movimientos de átomos, y se hace por lo tanto en fase sólida. Cuando se respetan las proporciones exactas (alrededor del 77 % de sal en masa), se tiene un producto que se comporta como producto puro (particularmente, hay una temperatura de fusión constante) y que se califica de "eutéctica". La temperatura de fusión de esta eutéctica es de alrededor de -21 °C.
Si la proporción de sal es inferior a esta relación, se da una mezcla agua-eutéctica, que se funde a una temperatura superior (entre -21 y 0 °C). Si la proporción de sal es superior, se tiene una mezcla sal-eutéctica que también se funde a una temperatura superior. Se puede trazar un diagrama, llamado diagrama de fase, que representa la temperatura de fusión en función de las.

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Hola...
desde la tierra de los glaciares, te mando un saludo por tu amor al hielo.
aca me dicen loco porque me gusta la nieve, el hielo, el frio.
¿estaré loco?.
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